The Fluoride Debate

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY/
ENVIRONMENT

CENSORSHIP

THE FLUORIDE
DEBATE

BENEFITS
Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8

ALTERNATIVES
Question 9
Question 10
Question 11
Question 12


SAFETY
Question 13
Question 14

OVERDOSE
Question 15
Question 16
Question 17

DISEASES
Question 18
Question 19
Question 20
Question 21
Question 22
Question 23
Question 24
Question 25
Question 26
Question 27
Question 28
Question 29
Question 30
Question 31
Question 32
Question 33

PUBLIC
POLICY

Question 34
Question 35
Question 36
Question 37
Question 38
Question 39
Question 40

COST
EFFECTIVENESS
Question 41
Question 42
Question 43

CONCLUSION

DISEASES

Question 29.
Does drinking optimally fluoridated water cause Alzheimer's disease?

ADA's Fluoridation Facts Short Answer
Generally accepted science has not demonstrated an association between drinking optimally fluoridated water and Alzheimer's disease.

ADA's Fluoridation Facts Long Answer
The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has yet to be identified. Scientists have identified the major risk factors for AD as age and family history. Other possible risk factors include a serious head injury and lower levels of education. Scientists are also studying additional factors to see if they may be associated with the disease. These include genetic (inherited) factors, viruses and environmental factors such as aluminum, zinc and other metals. Researchers have found these metals in the brain tissue of people with AD, but it is not known if these metals cause AD or build up in the brain as a result of the disease.190

Because aluminum has been found in the brain tissue of people with AD, claims have been made that fluoridated water "leaches" out the aluminum in cookware when used for boiling water, thereby implicating fluoride as a co-factor in the development of AD. One experiment attempted to test this claim by measuring the release of aluminum from aluminum cookware under the most adverse conditions, with and without the presence of fluoride. Throughout these trials, scientists were unable to leach out significant amounts of aluminum from any of the cookware, including those that were exposed to extreme acidic or alkaline conditions.191

A study published in 1998192 raised concerns about the potential relationship between fluoride and Alzheimer's disease. However, several flaws in the experimental design preclude any definitive conclusions from being drawn.193

Interestingly, there is evidence that aluminum and fluoride are mutually antagonistic in competing for absorption in the human body.17, 194 While a conclusion cannot be made that consumption of fluoridated water has a preventive effect on AD, there is no generally accepted scientific knowledge to show consumption of optimally fluoridated water is a risk factor for AD.

Repeat of Question 29.
Does drinking optimally fluoridated water cause Alzheimer's disease?

Opposition's Response

Researchers recently expressed their surprise that low doses of sodium fluoride, equivalent to the amount found in 1 ppm fluoridated water, were found to cause brain damage similar to that found in Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia, and that low doses of aluminum fluoride (0.5 ppm) resulted in double the amount of aluminum found in the brain compared to 100 times the dosage of aluminum (50 ppm) without the fluoride. (See 29-1: Brain Research, 784, 1998, 284-298).

" ... water with 1 part per million (ppm) of fluoride frees nearly 200 ppm of aluminum when boiled 10 minutes in aluminum cooking pots. That is 1,000 times the aluminum leached by nonfluoridated water." (See 29-2: Science News, 1/31/87).

"With the discovery that abnormally high levels of aluminum are present in senile plaques in Alzheimer's dementia, the cumulative effects of aluminum poisoning and the question of how this metal enters the body become problems that need immediate attention." (See 29-2: "Aluminum Leaching From Cooking from Utensils," in Nature, Jan. 1987).

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First Edition
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