Fluoridation Facts Short Answer
Fluoridation Facts Long Answer
from the Air
Additional discussion on this topic may be found in Question 32.
Children living in a community with water fluoridation get a portion of their daily fluoride intake from fluoridated water and a portion from dietary sources which would include food and other beverages. When considering water fluoridation, an individual must consume one liter of water fluoridated at 1 part per million (1 ppm) to receive 1 milligram (1 mg) of fluoride.17, 103 Children under six years of age, on average, consume less than one-half liter of drinking water a day.103 Therefore, children under six years of age would consume, on average, less than 0.5 mg of fluoride a day from drinking optimally fluoridated water (at 1 ppm).
A ten-year comparison study of long-time residents of Bartlett and Cameron, Texas, where the water supplies contained 8.0 and 0.4 parts per million of fluoride respectively, included examinations of organs, bones and tissues. Other than a higher prevalence of dental fluorosis in the Bartlett residents, the study indicated that long term consumption of dietary fluoride (resident average length of fluoride exposure was 36.7 years), even at levels considerably higher than recommended for decay prevention, resulted in no clinically significant physiological or functional effects.95
The average daily dietary intake of fluoride (expressed on a body weight basis) by children residing in optimally fluoridated (1 ppm) communities is 0.05 mg/kg/day; in communities without optimally fluoridated water, average intakes for children are about 50% lower.74 Dietary fluoride intake by adults in optimally fluoridated (1 ppm) areas averages 1.4 to 3.4 mg/day, and in nonfluoridated areas averages 0.3 to 1.0 mg/day.74
A 1990 review of literature identified no significant increases in concentrations of fluoride in food associated with water fluoridation.105
Questions concerning the possible concentration of fluoride through the biologic food chain have been addressed by the National Academy of Sciences, which concluded:106
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has established "market baskets" which reflect the actual 14-day consumption of various food items by an average individual in different age groups from six-month-old children to adults. In a nationwide study of market baskets from areas with varying levels of fluoride in water supplies, it was determined that little or no change in food fluoride content has occurred as a result of the fluoridation of U.S. water supplies.107, 108
Yes. See the section on Diseases.
The Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), in their December 1995 and July 1996 issues (in an effort to slow down the ever-increasing rise in dental fluorosis, the visible display of fluoride poisoning) advise dentists to warn parents of fluoride overdose from fluoride-based pesticide residue and fluoridated water found in fruit juices and drinks made from concentrates. Meanwhile, the ADA claims that children aren't getting enough. Juice concentrates are a real problem. Fluoride is not like chlorine; you can't boil it away. The more you boil fluoride, the more concentrated and poisonous it becomes. (See 15-1: "Fluoride Levels and Fluoride Contamination of Fruit Juices," from The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, Vol. 16, #1/1991).
Independent laboratory analyses now show that regularly consumed products found in every neighborhood store, such as Coca-Cola Classic, Minute Maid Orange Juice, and Lucerne 2% Milk, contain equal to or more than the amount of fluoride they intend to put in our water; with Froot Loops, Gerber's baby juices, and almost every product with white grape juice , containing two, three, and up to six times the concentration due to fluoride pesticide residue and/or processing with fluoridated water. (See 15-2: "Analytical Testing Report," by Expert Chemical Analysis, Inc., 6/17/98).
In 1995, both the American Dental Association (ADA) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), while segments of these same trade associations simultaneously continued to lobby for fluoridation, created new policy recommendations for fluoride drops and tablets, which are intended to be the substitute for fluoridated water in non-fluoridated communities. The new schedules indicate that mass medication, at the claimed optimal level of fluoridation, grossly exceeds the dosage that a qualified professional could prescribe, even after the professionals individual evaluation of a child for growth and development, weight, total exposure to fluoride from all sources, and individual susceptibility.
According to these new recommendations, infants are to receive no additional fluoride, no matter what the fluoride level in the water; and it is not until a child reaches the age of 6 that the new prescription recommendations ever reach the excessive dosage that is thrust upon a child that consumes fluoridated tap water. (See 15-3: "Policy Statement" from Pediatrics, May 1998, Vol. 95, Number 5).
The Natick Fluoridation Study Committee found that if they fluoridated the water, their children would be consuming about 2 to 3.5 times as much fluoride as was recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. (See 15-4: "Recommended Dosage of Fluoride," 9/27/97).
U.S. Public Health Service documents show that even in 1991, non fluoridated communities were already receiving more than the targeted fluoride dosage of 1 mg per day. Fluoridated communities were receiving up to 6 times the optimal goal. (See 15-5: "Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks," 1991, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services).
According to the study published in the July/August Pediatric Dentistry, "... children with educated parents who typically have better oral hygiene practices are at risk for fluorosis ... Fluorosis was found in 69 % of children from high socioeconomic-status families whose parents had college degrees and lived in fluoridated communities." (See 15-6: "Early Fluoride Exposure," from American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, July 31, 1998).
The famous Washington Post newspaper reported research at the Georgia School of Dentistry at the University of Connecticut showing children should only brush their teeth once a day to avoid fluoride overexposure. Doesn't the ADA say to brush after every meal?
"Not only does the 1 mg/day claimed necessary for teeth not require water fluoridation, but this is why the only oral epidemic is fluorosis in fluoridated areas of the US; and is why the Academy of General Dentistry representing 35,000 dentists has warned parents to limit the amount of juice their children drink too much fluoride!" (See 15-8).
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